Dentists may have a key role diagnosing the disease. The etiology and clinical manifestations of 70 patients with hand-foot-mouth disease. Discussion of management strategies for this workplace, its staff, and visitors is also included. The pathogenic connection between the two illnesses has limited evidence in the literature; however, this presents an unusual case for consideration. High incidence of EV It was also found that the most severe cases of EV71, characterized by pulmonary edema, had lower cell specific antigen cytokines Th1 and a lower lymphocyte proliferation response to the EV71 antigen in comparison with milder cases. The inclusion criteria were for studies on humans over the last 5 years, using the keywords HFMD.

Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot and mouth disease: Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. Int J Infect Dis. An alarmingly high prevalence of EV The characteristics of blood glucose and WBC counts in peripheral blood of cases of hand foot and mouth disease in China: Study Results Conclusions Ooi et al. It is more common in children under 10 and in vulnerable adults.

literature review hfmd

Similarly, dentists have a key role in educating patients by reviee good oral hygiene to minimize the spread of the disease. Similarly, ina year-old female presented with acute maculopathy with concurrent HFMD infection.

literature review hfmd

Severe and potentially life-threatening complications of a seemingly harmless childhood illness are represented sporadically in the literature. Sex As for sex, recent studies suggest a higher prevalence in males than in females [ 42630 ]. A literature review was performed via an automated search for information on the database: However it is the most common infectious disease in China, with an incidence rate of around ,—1, cases per year [ 2 ].


Effects of public health interventions in reducing transmission literaturr hand, foot, and mouth disease. It has also been shown that public health measures such as closing schools and hygiene campaigns are effective in reducing the incidence rate of HFMD [ 49 ].

A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult

Rdview, because the disease is self-limiting in nature and due to the lack of a virus-specific therapy, the present treatment is symptomatic. The full terms of this license are available at https: Manifestations of the disease on the skin consist of multiple lesions on the hands and feet, and occur concurrently or shortly after the oral lesions.

The symptoms had been present for 36—48 hours upon presentation. OCT retinal thickness map and horizontal high-resolution images of the right eye showing central serous liteature. Conclusions Dentists may have a key role diagnosing the disease. Diagnosis is very important to reduce the high mortality rate. Hong Kong Med J. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis Diagnosing the disease is relatively easy by looking at the clinical features of the disease.

Anorexia, fever, low pollution, sore throat, runny nose, abdominal pain, and sometimes myalgia, lymphadenopathy, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Onychomadesis outbreak in Valencia, Spain associated with hand, foot, and hcmd disease caused by enteroviruses.

Ineffective antiviral agents and vaccines against this virus was under development [ 46 ], Another study, litdrature presented the first construction and characterization of an infectious cDNA clone of CVA Seoul, Korea [ 23 ]. Dentists may have a key role diagnosing the disease.

Central serous retinopathy and hand–foot–mouth disease: coincidence or causation?

Results We found articles, which were subsequently reduced to 52 documents after applying the inclusion criteria. Hand—foot—mouth disease HFMD is a systemic viral illness that was discovered in and is primarily caused by Coxsackie A16 and enterovirus Analysis of the epidemic characteristics of the etiological agents in children with hand, foot and mouth disease and its clinical significance.


Epidemic of hand, foot and mouth disease in West Bengal, India in August, Coxsackievirus A6-induced hand-foot-mouth disease. This suggests that cellular immune response correlates with the clinical severity of HFMD.

A literature review and case report of hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult

Literxture Center Support Center. A case of hand-foot-mouth disease in an immunocompetent adult. Hand foot and mouth disease HFMD rarely appears as an epidemic infectious disease.

Incubation period 3—5 days Initial fever, headache, and malaise Sore throat and mouth Vesicular rash develops after 1—2 days, beginning as a red macule and then progressing to vesicles Vesicles present on hands, palms, and soles, and less commonly on limbs, buttocks, and genitals Lesions resolve in 3—5 days and heal without scarring Virus is excreted in feces and saliva hffmd several weeks, and children are infectious until blisters have disappeared.

Evaluation of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 specific immunoglobulin M antibodies for diagnosis of hand-foot-and-mouth disease. Received Sep 24; Accepted Mar 3.

literature review hfmd

The examination also found maculopapular lesions on the hands and feet, some of which were in the form of blisters Figs.